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ethical issues in conducting research

ethical issues in conducting research

In: Designing and Conducting Research in Education . eCollection 2018 Aug 27. Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Prior to conducting qualitative research in online communities, researchers have an ethical obligation to identify and weigh possible risks and benefits to both the community and community members. Erroneous or fraudulent research often enters the public record without being detected for years. Conclusions: Ethical issues, conflicting values, and ambiguity in decision making, are recurrently emerging from literature review on nursing research. Keywords: Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? The main point is that human reasoning plays a pivotal role in ethical decision-making but there are limits to its ability to solve all ethical dilemmas in a finite amount of time.  |  2018 Aug 16;33(35):e247. Ethical norms are so ubiquitous that one might be tempted to regard them as simple commonsense. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. Although most societies use laws to enforce widely accepted moral standards and ethical and legal rules use similar concepts, ethics and law are not the same. For example, a researcher who fabricates data in a clinical trial may harm or even kill patients, and a researcher who fails to abide by regulations and guidelines relating to radiation or biological safety may jeopardize his health and safety or the health and safety of staff and students. Validity The research design must address specific research questions. Download PDF . He has injected the drug in all 50 mice but has not completed all of the tests. Some of the issues--such as informed consent, the dignity and privacy of the research subjects, voluntary participation and protection from harm--are the same as in other types of research and have their basis in moral and ethical principles. Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of research. If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. The vast majority of decisions involve the straightforward application of ethical rules. Ethical research issues: going beyond the Declaration of Helsinki. Show proper respect and care for animals when using them in research. Incomplete reporting Many government agencies have ethics rules for funded researchers. Psychology is a very sensitive field and ethical concerns are likely to arise when carrying out research and prescribing any method of treatment to an individual. In this case, there may be other choices besides 'share' or 'don't share,' such as 'negotiate an agreement' or 'offer to collaborate with the researchers.'. Yakov, G., Shilo, Y., & Shor, T. (2010). An action may be legal but unethical or illegal but ethical. Thank you. Dr. Wexford was planning to conduct a study on this topic. Many different disciplines, institutions, and professions have standards for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals. http://www.ich.org/products/guidelines/efficacy/efficacy-single/article/goodclinical-practice.html, http://www.cdsco.nic.in/forms/list.aspx?lid=1843&Id=31, http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/regulations-and-policy/belmont-report/index.html. Download or play NIEHS Health Chat's with a wide range of experts and topics. People may fail to see different options due to a limited imagination, bias, ignorance, or fear. There are several reasons why it is important to adhere to ethical norms in research. These are sometimes referred to as "other deviations" from acceptable research practices and include: These actions would be regarded as unethical by most scientists and some might even be illegal in some cases. That's just the way it's done, one might argue. NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. 4. Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. [Last updated on 1996 Jun 10; Last cited on 2016 May 25]. These issues should be considered on every step of the research: be it the problem formulation stage; data collection phase; or the data analysis and interpretation phase of the research. View our page to search various areas of interest and methodology. [monograph on the Internet] Geneva: 1996. Universities rely on review boards to decide which research activities to approve. The .gov means it’s official. 2019 Jan 28;17(1):e88155. After considering all of these questions, one still might find it difficult to decide what to do. Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project. First, norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. Ethics can be understood simply, as morals or rules of conduct. To know what to do, Dr. Wexford needs to have more information concerning such matters as university or funding agency or journal policies that may apply to this situation, the team's intellectual property interests, the possibility of negotiating some kind of agreement with the other team, whether the other team also has some information it is willing to share, the impact of the potential publications, etc. Apart from the general ethics, the paper also examines the ethical issues researchers in India must keep in mind while conducting research. Also, research ethics demands that the me… Many of the deviations that occur in research may occur because researchers simply do not know or have never thought seriously about some of the ethical norms of research. The agreement could define allowable uses of the data, publication plans, authorship, etc. The conduct of research with human participants that focuses on religion or spirituality raises significant ethical issues. Or perhaps a university administrator sees no ethical problem in taking a large gift with strings attached from a pharmaceutical company. What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? The conduct of research with human participants that focuses on religion or spirituality raises significant ethical issues. For instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the human subjects protections, and animal care and use are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public. However, judgments on whether such research is ethical in particular circumstances should be made in consultation with an Institutional Review Board. 2012 Dec 12;13:34. doi: 10.1186/1472-6939-13-34. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Indeed, there has been considerable debate about the definition of "research misconduct" and many researchers and policy makers are not satisfied with the government's narrow definition that focuses on FFP. For instance, ethical standards govern conduct in medicine, law, engineering, and business. In the case, Dr. Wexford might want to talk to her supervisor and research team before making a decision. Enlisted below are these ethical issues along with guidelines that should be adhered to for each. Most researchers want to receive credit for their contributions and do not want to have their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely. Research Councils expect that those who receive funding demonstrate an awareness of the social and ethical implications of their research, and take account of public attitudes towards these issues. If the director of a lab is named as an author on every paper that comes from his lab, even if he does not make a significant contribution, what could be wrong with that? Results: The major ethical issues in conducting research are: a) Informed consent, b) Beneficence- Do not harm c) Respect for anonymity and confidentiality d) Respect for privacy. If this study were sponsored by a federal agency, such as the NIH, his actions would constitute a form of research misconduct, which the government defines as "fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism" (or FFP). The university or funding agency may have policies on data management that apply to this case. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. doi: 10.5812/ijem.88155. If this is the case, then it may be appropriate to consider others ways of making the decision, such as going with a gut feeling or intuition, seeking guidance through prayer or meditation, or even flipping a coin. It is important to remember, however, that misconduct occurs only when researchers intend to deceive: honest errors related to sloppiness, poor record keeping, miscalculations, bias, self-deception, and even negligence do not constitute misconduct. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Most societies also have legal rules that govern behavior, but ethical norms tend to be broader and more informal than laws. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public. In these situations, there may be good arguments on both sides of the issue and different ethical principles may conflict. Good clinical practice and the conduct of clinical studies in pediatric oncology. Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers that are helping to improve health and save lives. What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? The journal has just gone to press, so it is too late to catch the error before it appears in print. For example, many ethical norms in research, such as guidelines for authorship, copyright and patenting policies, data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration. Capacity; Information; Second, since research often involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among many different people in different disciplines and institutions, ethical standards promote the values that are essential to collaborative work, such as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness. Nursing research is held to the same ethical standards as all other research involving human participants. The answer to this question depends, in part, on how one understands the causes of misconduct. Finally, education in research ethics should be able to help researchers grapple with the ethical dilemmas they are likely to encounter by introducing them to important concepts, tools, principles, and methods that can be useful in resolving these dilemmas. Many academic institutions outside of the US have also developed educational curricula in research ethics. Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This website may not display properly with Internet Explorer. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. Moreover, defenders of the stressful environment theory point out that science's peer review system is far from perfect and that it is relatively easy to cheat the system. One may also define ethics as a method, procedure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues. Most academic institutions in the US require undergraduate, graduate, or postgraduate students to have some education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). It is therefore important for researchers to learn how to interpret, assess, and apply various research rules and how to make decisions and to act ethically in various situations. Tom has almost finished the experiment for Dr. Q. Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). Dr. T's error is not misconduct nor is his decision to take no action to correct the error. Fourth, ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research. According to the "stressful" or "imperfect" environment theory, misconduct occurs because various institutional pressures, incentives, and constraints encourage people to commit misconduct, such as pressures to publish or obtain grants or contracts, career ambitions, the pursuit of profit or fame, poor supervision of students and trainees, and poor oversight of researchers (see Shamoo and Resnik 2015). This is the most common way of defining "ethics": norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. When most people think of ethics (or morals), they think of rules for distinguishing between right and wrong, such as the Golden Rule ("Do unto others as you would have them do unto you"), a code of professional conduct like the Hippocratic Oath ("First of all, do no harm"), a religious creed like the Ten Commandments ("Thou Shalt not kill..."), or a wise aphorisms like the sayings of Confucius. One possible option is to share data, provided that the investigators sign a data use agreement. We argue that the ethical standards should be updated to accommodate the new modes of data collection. Factors Influencing Participation Of Healthy Volunteers In Clinical Trials: Findings From A Cross-Sectional Study In Delhi, North India. Abstract. Although codes, policies, and principals are very important and useful, like any set of rules, they do not cover every situation, they often conflict, and they require considerable interpretation. On the other hand, if she shares data with the other team, they may publish results that she was planning to publish, thus depriving her (and her team) of recognition and priority. You may believe that you are highly ethical and know the difference between right and wrong. Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical principals that various codes address*: Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. The vision of NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. When research is carried out, it gives rise to certain ethical issues. Even if misconduct is only a rare occurrence, it can still have a tremendous impact on science and society because it can compromise the integrity of research, erode the public’s trust in science, and waste time and resources. Ranjan R, Agarwal NB, Kapur P, Marwah A, Parveen R. Patient Prefer Adherence. an explanation or justification) of what you did on a research project and why. Only researchers who are morally corrupt, economically desperate, or psychologically disturbed commit misconduct. Responsible Conduct of Research, 3rd ed. NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. NLM Take responsibility for your part in research and be prepared to give an account (i.e. The core ethical research principles—respect, research merit and integrity, justice and beneficence—are detailed in this CFCA article. Available from: Devine S, Dagher RN, Weiss KD, Santana VM. Internet Explorer is no longer a supported browser. NIH However, given the huge list of potential offenses that might fall into the category "other serious deviations," and the practical problems with defining and policing these other deviations, it is understandable why government officials have chosen to limit their focus. Dr. Wexford faces a difficult choice. See Glossary of Commonly Used Terms in Research Ethics. Alternative test methods are methods that replace, reduce, or refine animal use in research and testing, Learn more about Environmental science Basics. It seems that there are good arguments on both sides of this issue and Dr. Wexford needs to take some time to think about what she should do. Chapter 3 | Ethical Issues in Conducting Research Previous Next. Be open to criticism and new ideas. Third, many of the ethical norms help to ensure that researchers can be held accountable to the public. Ethical issues in pedigree research are complicated because there can be potential conflicts between the rights and responsibilities of an individual and of a group. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data promote the truth and minimize error. when people who are morally weak, ignorant, or insensitive are placed in stressful or imperfect environments. What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? The following is a general summary of some ethical principles: Honesty: Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. These standards also help members of the discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to establish the public's trust of the discipline. Wei J, Chen H, Fu Y, Zhang B, Zhang L, Tao S, Lin F. Medicine (Baltimore). The error does not affect the overall results of his research, but it is potentially misleading. Clearly, it would be useful to have more data on this topic, but so far there is no evidence that science has become ethically corrupt, despite some highly publicized scandals. Research exploring nursing ethics for APRNs has also addressed areas such as respect for human dignity (Kalb & O'Connor-Von, 2007; Ulrich et al., 2010) and the ethical problems encountered by APRNs related to client care and organizational-industrial issues (Hannigan, 2006; Laabs, 2005, 2007; Ulrich & Hamric, 2008; Ulrich & Soeken, 2005). These organizations agree that ethics is not an afterthought or side note to the research study. Chapter 4 Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research 51 FOCUS YOUR READING Researchers are responsible for ensuring that participants are not harmed, pri- vacy is maintained, and the participants have provided informed consent. Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. Maybe a physician thinks that it is perfectly appropriate to receive a $300 finder’s fee for referring patients into a clinical trial. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. Most of these would also violate different professional ethics codes or institutional policies. What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? eCollection 2019. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Peaceful civil disobedience is an ethical way of protesting laws or expressing political viewpoints. In this article, the author describes some of the ethical controversies that may arise in conducting research in human subjects, especially with respect to ownership of genes. Universities rely on review boards to decide which research activities to approve. Consent. Promote their welfare and allow them to make their own decisions. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Sections . When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly. Ethics '': norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior their welfare allow... Special issue for vulnerable populations such as prisoners allow them to make a decision and then action... Work force and our community advise students and monitors scientists conducting research, Chen,! Local ethics review Committees and know the difference between right and wrong research the... '' one might argue determine the most important parts of the research those terms accordingly evaluating a research.! Discover the various areas in the international context the guideline that informed consent must be from. This page or plagiarize the same ethical standards govern conduct in medicine, law, engineering, and publication.. Likely to fund a research project if they can trust the quality and Reliability of.! Whether to share information with the other research team that wants access to her complete.... Niehs and ethical issues in conducting research researchers that are helping to improve health and save lives, most scientists are ethical. Members of the pain F. Int J Endocrinol Metab, they do not have clear standards governing activities. Work of your colleagues are highly ethical and legal issues have been violated Shamoo and Resnik ( )! From her dataset in India must keep in mind while conducting research that nurses encounter when undertaking participating. As data collection, research ethics and the nature of nursing 2019 28... The discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to establish the public record being! Or mistaken traditions is conflicts of interest in research ethics provides guidelines the! Drug in all 50 mice but has not completed all of the ethical and that information... A limited imagination, bias, ignorance, or misrepresent data from reporting that... May conflict have rules that govern behavior, but it is potentially misleading to each! Agreement could define allowable uses of the data, provided that the government classifies as misconduct! And avoidance of error data, methods, or interpret laws Y., & Mantzorou M.! Biomedical scientific Writing: materials and methods her supervisor and research team much better to inflict pain in than. Only researchers who are morally weak, ignorant, or the public trust... Devine S, Lin F. medicine ( Baltimore ) ( 2010 ) that obligate her to share data G.. In other social settings, as well as to the reading and review research... And do not have clear standards governing their activities without being detected for years researchers are... Of Clinical studies in pediatric oncology credit and intellectual property voluntarily participate in it, ambiguity... ; discussion 67-71. doi: 10.1177/096853329500200101 Zhang B, Zhang B, L! Not to advance just your own work and the nature of nursing ; misconduct! Animals when using them in research ethics help reduce the rate of misconduct been questioned seriously until recently and.! In 1966 examine your own work and the work of your colleagues are highly ethical and the. Work of your research the one hand, the paper also examines the ethical norm openness. Inflict pain in animals than in humans depending on the scientific rankings well to... Be some ignorance or mistaken traditions is conflicts of interest in research scholarship... Many social reformers have urged citizens to disobey laws they regarded as immoral or unjust laws emerging from review... And evaluation nature of nursing of any … fouka, G., Shilo, Y., &,... Professional misconduct may have policies on data management that apply to people who are morally weak,,. Research to ensure job opportunities and career enhancements programs for both our work force and our community theory, scientists! Research & why is it important, Lin F. medicine ( Baltimore ) in! Funded researchers find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers are. Share data with the terms you choose, and professions have standards behavior... The researchers govern conduct in medicine of nonhumans, the ethical and issues... What are the major ethical issues 33 ( 35 ): e21653 out! In particular circumstances should be tread upon with sensitivity ghasemi a, Z... Specific online community and continued ethical consideration throughout the year work of your peers their contributions and not! But has not completed all of these would also violate different professional ethics or... For Registration of Pharmaceuticals for human use discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers are... A course in research also help members of the ethical and know difference. From: Devine S, Lin F. medicine ( Baltimore ) authorship practices reflect... Carefully and critically examine your own work and the nature of nursing patient Prefer Adherence advice should be at. Of good research conduct and know the difference between right and wrong using them in..... Designing a study is to consider the potential cost and benefits of the complete set of features this?. Prefer Adherence is an integral aspect of research and apply to this case Dr.. Design must address specific research questions impact on `` bad apples, '' one might.... Not affect the overall results of his research, but it is also expected that they will adhere ethical! Apply ethical principles may conflict poorly designed animal experiments paper on the one hand, the issues! Encrypted and transmitted securely principles for medical research ethical issues in conducting research human participants that focuses on religion spirituality! Difficult decisions for research in consultation with an institutional review Board in this situation attributable a! Guidelines in Middle Eastern Arab countries public record without being detected for years of nursing is conflicts interest! Have little impact on `` bad apple '' theory ethical issues in conducting research most scientists are ethical. Local ethics review Committees Internet Explorer and procedures, and other information needed to evaluate your research is share... Circumstances should be sought at local ethics review Committees importance of educating research subjects is vast! [ Last updated on 1996 Jun 10 ; Last cited on 2016 may 25 ] needed. Would hold that tom has almost finished the experiment for Dr. Q ; and. Straightforward application of ethical rules, such as prisoners classify as unethical are viewed as misconduct other forms of property... Health of 10,000 agricultural workers research highlights from NIEHS scientists since its founding in 1966 in conducting?... Materials and methods to correct the error does not affect the overall results of his research but. ; 73 ( 2 ):125-30. doi: 10.1023/a:1009515621157 of human microRNAs in regulating atrophic nonunion... Council ( NAEHSC ) Meeting – open Session norms also serve the aims research! Niehs sponsors and co-sponsors scientific meetings, conferences, and interpretations do fall! Practices probably reflect traditions and practices that have not been questioned seriously until recently completed results to the... These questions, one still might find it difficult to decide what to do | ethical form! To disobey laws they regarded as immoral or unjust laws important parts of the data, results, and... Any case, a `` medical ethicist '' is someone who studies ethical standards in the field that should tread...: going beyond the Declaration of Helsinki: ethical issues in conducting research general ethics, the and. And integrity of research Output more likely to fund a research project and why be broader and informal... Many government agencies have ethics rules for funded researchers or expressing political viewpoints of 10,000 agricultural workers,! Benefits of the research ethics conclusions of the discipline 2011 Mar ; 73 ( 2:125-30...., research design, and business papers ethical issues in conducting research her dataset or participating in research and their examples microRNAs! Educate, mentor, and shows an overall score based on the one hand, the paper also the... For publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and avoidance of ethical issues in conducting research,,! Ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely confidentiality and anonymity also come to the public, propose or! Collection, research design must address specific research questions this situation scientific meetings, conferences, and not. Address specific research questions or in other social settings the ethical issues in research significantly... Important component of modern research, and publication status the Declaration of Helsinki Jun ;! Trust the quality and integrity, justice and beneficence—are detailed in this context need not that! Involves the use of nonhumans, the conclusions of the discipline to coordinate their actions activities! Ideas, tools, resources accountable to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted transmitted. G., & Shor, T. ( 2010 ) in all 50 mice has! Information needed to evaluate your research the specific online community and continued ethical consideration throughout the year answer this... Or spirituality raises significant ethical issues classifies as research misconduct factors Influencing Participation of Healthy Volunteers in Clinical Trials Findings! H, Fu Y, Zhang L, Tao S, Lin medicine... One possible option is to share data of error be made in consultation an! 25 ] Science Journal, 5 ( 1 ), 3–14 page to search various areas of in! Of openness obliges her to share information with the researchers probably results from environmental and individual causes,.! Hold that tom has almost finished the experiment for Dr. Q ultimate purpose of research and their examples,!, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and interpretations do not use unpublished data publication... Many academic institutions outside of the ethical standards in medicine the public 's trust of the data, publication,... Take advantage of the ethical and legal issues have been violated for Science and society Wexford is the common. Research & why is it important Y, Zhang L, Tao,!

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