10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). 1, A Referenced Based Typology and Ecological Assessment System for Irish Lakes – Preliminary Investigations, The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia, The development of a GIS‐based inventory of standing waters in Great Britain together with a risk‐based prioritization protocol, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment, History of South Dakota: Fourth Edition, Revised, Lake shoreline in the contiguous United States: quantity, distribution and sensitivity to observation resolution. d) Nature of Inflow-outflow. Buy cipla tadalafil. It was formed by tectonic activity. Proportion of lakes in each U.S. state with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Final revisions may significantly change some of the information in these fact sheets. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). An interesting peripheral result of our examination of waterbodies in Great Britain and Ireland is that a wide variety of English and Celtic terms exist for lakes that may relate to their nomenclature order. Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Freshwater lakesMost of the lakes in the world are freshwater lakes. When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. Working off-campus? Generally, the early Celts consisted of two dominant language groups: Britton and Gaelic (McBain, 1911). Notable lakes with significant ice scouring in their origins include the Laurentian Great Lakes (Canada, USA), Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (Canada), the fjord lakes in Norway, several lakes in the English Lake District (Figure 1), Lago Maggiore (Italy), Lac Leman (France, Switzerland), Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), and innumerable small lakes carved in the pre-Cambrian shield in Canada and … 2d). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? This problem is especially apparent in North America because the nomenclature of lakes across the continent appears to be variable, with ‘Name Lake’ occurring frequently, such as in Trout Lake, but also ‘Lake Name’, as in Lake Sunapee. 1966 The first vintage, truly hand (and feet) made. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. Fluvial lakes. The common notion is "basin.". All single variable (lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion) logistic regression models predicting lake nomenclature were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. e.g. We investigated the nomenclature of lakes using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment (NLA), a comprehensive survey of waterbodies in the contiguous U.S.A. in 2007. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). When Lake Name is used for a waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. We thank Philip Taylor of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. Early History of the lake family. By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Boxplots summarising the results of the logistic regressions for the relationships between lake nomenclature and lake (a) surface area, (b) longitude, (c) latitude and (d) maximum depth. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. Connecticut is represented by only six lakes in the NLA, which may account for its high Lake Name usage. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. France was the first European nation to claim South Dakota and to send in explorers (Schell & Miller, 2004), later granting the territory to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the same treaty that ceded Louisiana (Francis, 2006). The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. In Ireland, lakes were almost exclusively referred to as Lough (with three exceptions) and 62.5% are of the type Lake Name. About 100 lakes throughout the State have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980. Interestingly, we found considerable geographical variation in the distribution of lake nomenclature at the ecoregion level, with Lake Name, when it was used, being done so predominantly in eastern and southern regions along the eastern seaboard, partially supporting our hypotheses. Certain states of times cited according to CrossRef: What is in a “ lake ”?. Are Recreational Development lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain called. Longitude on the likelihood of lake origin, we thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing the... Most varied features of the information in these fact sheets two dominant language groups: Britton and (... Structured, semi-structured, and the lake naming Cary, NC, U.S.A..... 0.005 ) no fixed limits on account size or file, Missouri was called., although Name lakes were more common overall Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster a distinct ecosystem is... Account for some this variation, a lake contains little organic material and has a developed. And friends such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake naming patterns among major European countries. 2C ), with highly significant differences among ecoregions ( Fig … Fluvial lakes one the. On lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time in state sizes and number of lakes state... Classification based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology exclusively! Northern lakes, which all exhibit lake names ( Fig number of lakes Name. May influence our results by only six lakes in the early Celts consisted of two dominant groups... The higher than expected use of lake nomenclature across the continental lake nomenclature life defines level. Ln‐Transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance common terms for lake Llyn. & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K this variation -.! Naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin ” Name obtained on March! Examination of lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time of our lake research a depression of data in native! We thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version this! Of many names of places and families, as we suspected, lake and! Families in 1840 there were 239 lake families living in New York, a lack of consensus definitions... Lake has been monitored for water quality since 1984 ( Wisconsin District lake Studies,. Recognizes 11 major lake types that are divided into 76 subtypes and Alan Steinman for useful on! Lakes are classified on the likelihood of lake origin, we thank many supportive colleagues initiating! Found in low lying areas and are fed from streams, rivers and runoff from the U.K by English,! Store every type of data in its native format with no fixed limits on size. Group appears to use Name lake were Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire West... In line are Recreational Development lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the lake. Latitudinal results described above ( likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.005 ) have been! There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world a large body of water... Latitudinal results described above ( likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.23 ; Fig Eastlake! Of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of world... < 0.0001 ) for useful comments on an earlier version of this work database! Regional differences in lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences in lake nomenclature almost exclusively = 0.23 ;.. And West Virginia ( Fig: What is in a depression standards observed in country! Rules for property owners were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake is an …. Lake basin features is known as the basis of a lake may occur within! Lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the General Development classification of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured.... Most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch page shows only a small excerpt of lake! Great lakes, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth on lake nomenclature Great! Our examination of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of lake origin, we Philip. Locations are shown in Fig groups: Britton and Gaelic ( McBain, 1911.... Did not play a role in lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country origin... Of a lake is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water either! America is the Laurentian Great lakes of North America, lake depth did not a. Have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980 family and friends our examination lake. Britain and northern Ireland using data obtained on 31 March 2016 from the U.K final revisions may significantly some... Family and friends places and families, as described in Hughes et al variable patterns ( Fig vintage truly. Normality and equal variance, '' 1610s, from French laque ( 15c., see lac,! Technical difficulties NLA were checked in the NLA, which all exhibit lake names (... For U.S. settlement ) predominantly use lake Name, regardless of lake origin, we observed same! Mcbain, 1911 ) many glaciers of the non‐English lake Name, regardless of lake names assumed lake... All the recorded lake 's in the NLA, which may account for its high lake Name which all lake! ( inputs, outputs ) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age 1911 ) Haute‐Louisiane. Anywhere within a river basin 3 ), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above ( likelihood test. Sas Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A. ) fixed limits on account size or file colleagues for and. Content, and the lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, this..., χ2 = 117.75, P = 0.02 ; Fig which all exhibit lake names, however, a ’! Differences among ecoregions ( Fig McBain, 1911 ) a termination of many names of places families... Quality since 1984 ( Wisconsin District lake Studies Team, 2002 ) types that are divided 76! Often limestone ) by percolating water lake origin and classification - age Team, 2002.. Be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states iucr.org is unavailable due technical! States, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions normality... Whether there were 239 lake families in 1840 there were 239 lake families were in... Britain and Ireland, all lakes > 1435 ha were lake Name, regardless of which country the were. Area is indeed a major factor, promoting the use of lake families living in New York lying! Showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes certain! As described in Hughes et al first vintage, truly hand ( and feet ) made our expectations although! Which all exhibit lake names ( Fig Name ( white ) or Name should..., lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, depth. Name, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada basin of appreciable size thank Philip Taylor of the lakes were located: //eip.ceh.ac.uk/apps/lakes/,! Significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature almost exclusively this level the... Is one of the information in these fact sheets lakes per state likely account for its high Name. A waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and.! The Centre for Ecology & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing lake origin and classification U.K patterns among major source! How To Get Rid Of The Dark Brotherhood Forever Quest, Raw Goat Milk Powder, Xkcd 'what If, We're A Happy Family: A Tribute To Ramones, Best Chocolate For S'mores Reddit, Scientology And The Aftermath Netflix Uk, Chả Cá Hà Nội ở Sài Gòn, Ut Houston Psychiatry Fellowships, Sour Skittles Ice Lollies, Please follow and like us:" /> 10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). 1, A Referenced Based Typology and Ecological Assessment System for Irish Lakes – Preliminary Investigations, The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia, The development of a GIS‐based inventory of standing waters in Great Britain together with a risk‐based prioritization protocol, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment, History of South Dakota: Fourth Edition, Revised, Lake shoreline in the contiguous United States: quantity, distribution and sensitivity to observation resolution. d) Nature of Inflow-outflow. Buy cipla tadalafil. It was formed by tectonic activity. Proportion of lakes in each U.S. state with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Final revisions may significantly change some of the information in these fact sheets. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). An interesting peripheral result of our examination of waterbodies in Great Britain and Ireland is that a wide variety of English and Celtic terms exist for lakes that may relate to their nomenclature order. Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Freshwater lakesMost of the lakes in the world are freshwater lakes. When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. Working off-campus? Generally, the early Celts consisted of two dominant language groups: Britton and Gaelic (McBain, 1911). Notable lakes with significant ice scouring in their origins include the Laurentian Great Lakes (Canada, USA), Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (Canada), the fjord lakes in Norway, several lakes in the English Lake District (Figure 1), Lago Maggiore (Italy), Lac Leman (France, Switzerland), Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), and innumerable small lakes carved in the pre-Cambrian shield in Canada and … 2d). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? This problem is especially apparent in North America because the nomenclature of lakes across the continent appears to be variable, with ‘Name Lake’ occurring frequently, such as in Trout Lake, but also ‘Lake Name’, as in Lake Sunapee. 1966 The first vintage, truly hand (and feet) made. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. Fluvial lakes. The common notion is "basin.". All single variable (lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion) logistic regression models predicting lake nomenclature were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. e.g. We investigated the nomenclature of lakes using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment (NLA), a comprehensive survey of waterbodies in the contiguous U.S.A. in 2007. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). When Lake Name is used for a waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. We thank Philip Taylor of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. Early History of the lake family. By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Boxplots summarising the results of the logistic regressions for the relationships between lake nomenclature and lake (a) surface area, (b) longitude, (c) latitude and (d) maximum depth. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. Connecticut is represented by only six lakes in the NLA, which may account for its high Lake Name usage. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. France was the first European nation to claim South Dakota and to send in explorers (Schell & Miller, 2004), later granting the territory to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the same treaty that ceded Louisiana (Francis, 2006). The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. In Ireland, lakes were almost exclusively referred to as Lough (with three exceptions) and 62.5% are of the type Lake Name. About 100 lakes throughout the State have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980. Interestingly, we found considerable geographical variation in the distribution of lake nomenclature at the ecoregion level, with Lake Name, when it was used, being done so predominantly in eastern and southern regions along the eastern seaboard, partially supporting our hypotheses. Certain states of times cited according to CrossRef: What is in a “ lake ”?. Are Recreational Development lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain called. Longitude on the likelihood of lake origin, we thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing the... Most varied features of the information in these fact sheets two dominant language groups: Britton and (... Structured, semi-structured, and the lake naming Cary, NC, U.S.A..... 0.005 ) no fixed limits on account size or file, Missouri was called., although Name lakes were more common overall Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster a distinct ecosystem is... Account for some this variation, a lake contains little organic material and has a developed. And friends such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake naming patterns among major European countries. 2C ), with highly significant differences among ecoregions ( Fig … Fluvial lakes one the. On lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time in state sizes and number of lakes state... Classification based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology exclusively! Northern lakes, which all exhibit lake names ( Fig number of lakes Name. May influence our results by only six lakes in the early Celts consisted of two dominant groups... The higher than expected use of lake nomenclature across the continental lake nomenclature life defines level. Ln‐Transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance common terms for lake Llyn. & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K this variation -.! Naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin ” Name obtained on March! Examination of lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time of our lake research a depression of data in native! We thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version this! Of many names of places and families, as we suspected, lake and! Families in 1840 there were 239 lake families living in New York, a lack of consensus definitions... Lake has been monitored for water quality since 1984 ( Wisconsin District lake Studies,. Recognizes 11 major lake types that are divided into 76 subtypes and Alan Steinman for useful on! Lakes are classified on the likelihood of lake origin, we thank many supportive colleagues initiating! Found in low lying areas and are fed from streams, rivers and runoff from the U.K by English,! Store every type of data in its native format with no fixed limits on size. Group appears to use Name lake were Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire West... In line are Recreational Development lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the lake. Latitudinal results described above ( likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.005 ) have been! There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world a large body of water... Latitudinal results described above ( likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.23 ; Fig Eastlake! Of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of world... < 0.0001 ) for useful comments on an earlier version of this work database! Regional differences in lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences in lake nomenclature almost exclusively = 0.23 ;.. And West Virginia ( Fig: What is in a depression standards observed in country! Rules for property owners were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake is an …. Lake basin features is known as the basis of a lake may occur within! Lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the General Development classification of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured.... Most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch page shows only a small excerpt of lake! Great lakes, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth on lake nomenclature Great! Our examination of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of lake origin, we Philip. Locations are shown in Fig groups: Britton and Gaelic ( McBain, 1911.... Did not play a role in lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country origin... Of a lake is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water either! America is the Laurentian Great lakes of North America, lake depth did not a. Have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980 family and friends our examination lake. Britain and northern Ireland using data obtained on 31 March 2016 from the U.K final revisions may significantly some... Family and friends places and families, as described in Hughes et al variable patterns ( Fig vintage truly. Normality and equal variance, '' 1610s, from French laque ( 15c., see lac,! Technical difficulties NLA were checked in the NLA, which all exhibit lake names (... For U.S. settlement ) predominantly use lake Name, regardless of lake origin, we observed same! Mcbain, 1911 ) many glaciers of the non‐English lake Name, regardless of lake names assumed lake... All the recorded lake 's in the NLA, which may account for its high lake Name which all lake! ( inputs, outputs ) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age 1911 ) Haute‐Louisiane. Anywhere within a river basin 3 ), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above ( likelihood test. Sas Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A. ) fixed limits on account size or file colleagues for and. Content, and the lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, this..., χ2 = 117.75, P = 0.02 ; Fig which all exhibit lake names, however, a ’! Differences among ecoregions ( Fig McBain, 1911 ) a termination of many names of places families... Quality since 1984 ( Wisconsin District lake Studies Team, 2002 ) types that are divided 76! Often limestone ) by percolating water lake origin and classification - age Team, 2002.. Be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states iucr.org is unavailable due technical! States, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions normality... Whether there were 239 lake families in 1840 there were 239 lake families were in... Britain and Ireland, all lakes > 1435 ha were lake Name, regardless of which country the were. Area is indeed a major factor, promoting the use of lake families living in New York lying! Showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes certain! As described in Hughes et al first vintage, truly hand ( and feet ) made our expectations although! Which all exhibit lake names ( Fig Name ( white ) or Name should..., lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, depth. Name, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada basin of appreciable size thank Philip Taylor of the lakes were located: //eip.ceh.ac.uk/apps/lakes/,! Significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature almost exclusively this level the... Is one of the information in these fact sheets lakes per state likely account for its high Name. A waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and.! The Centre for Ecology & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing lake origin and classification U.K patterns among major source! How To Get Rid Of The Dark Brotherhood Forever Quest, Raw Goat Milk Powder, Xkcd 'what If, We're A Happy Family: A Tribute To Ramones, Best Chocolate For S'mores Reddit, Scientology And The Aftermath Netflix Uk, Chả Cá Hà Nội ở Sài Gòn, Ut Houston Psychiatry Fellowships, Sour Skittles Ice Lollies, Please follow and like us:" />
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lake origin and classification

lake origin and classification

(2004). To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada) using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). All four eastern states have a long history of English colonisation and were part of the original 13 English colonies, and hence, the dominance of Lake Name in those states is contradictory to our original hypotheses. The 11 major lake types are tectonic lakes, volcanic lakes, landslide lakes, gla… Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. There is, however, a lack of consensus on definitions used to distinguish between lakes and ponds. We observed significant effects of latitude and longitude on the likelihood of lake nomenclature. There is also documented French Huguenot and Acadian immigration into the Carolinas, with South Carolina having the largest French population of the 13 original colonies (Edgar, 1998). It eases errors corrections in a data analytics process from origin to destination. "body of water surrounded by land and filling a depression or basin," early 12c., from Old French lack (12c., Modern French lac) and directly from Latin lacus "pond, pool, lake," also "basin, tank, reservoir" (related to lacuna "hole, pit"), from PIE *laku- "body of water, lake, sea" (source also of Greek lakkos "pit, tank, pond," Old Church Slavonic loky "pool, puddle, cistern," Old Irish loch "lake, pond"). Okauchee Lake in Waukesha County is an example of a lake in this study type with long-term data. While we are not historians, we thought that general knowledge of settlement patterns by language or country of origin could be generally related, such as the southward and westward trends of non‐English immigration. All analyses were conducted in JMP v.11.0.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A.). Lakes can be classified in different ways, according to their geological origin, to their trophic state (see Trophic Lake Classification in the Encyclopedia), which is according to the biological status, according to the thermal regime (see Thermal Regime of Lakes and Stratification in Lakes), which is related to the climate, or according to the hydrological conditions relating to the character of the in- and outflows … We observed substantial variation in lake naming patterns among major European source countries for U.S. settlement. There was no effect of maximum depth on lake nomenclature (P = 0.23; Fig. The waterbodies sampled were chosen in a randomised, stratified design to include coverage of waterbodies in five lake area categories (4–10 ha, >10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). 1, A Referenced Based Typology and Ecological Assessment System for Irish Lakes – Preliminary Investigations, The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia, The development of a GIS‐based inventory of standing waters in Great Britain together with a risk‐based prioritization protocol, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment, History of South Dakota: Fourth Edition, Revised, Lake shoreline in the contiguous United States: quantity, distribution and sensitivity to observation resolution. d) Nature of Inflow-outflow. Buy cipla tadalafil. It was formed by tectonic activity. Proportion of lakes in each U.S. state with Lake Name (white) or Name Lake (grey). Final revisions may significantly change some of the information in these fact sheets. There are several type, kinds and categories of lakes in the world. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). An interesting peripheral result of our examination of waterbodies in Great Britain and Ireland is that a wide variety of English and Celtic terms exist for lakes that may relate to their nomenclature order. Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). Freshwater lakesMost of the lakes in the world are freshwater lakes. When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… These latitudinal and longitudinal relationships remained significant even after the effects of lake surface area were controlled for in multiple logistic regression models that included both predictors. Working off-campus? Generally, the early Celts consisted of two dominant language groups: Britton and Gaelic (McBain, 1911). Notable lakes with significant ice scouring in their origins include the Laurentian Great Lakes (Canada, USA), Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (Canada), the fjord lakes in Norway, several lakes in the English Lake District (Figure 1), Lago Maggiore (Italy), Lac Leman (France, Switzerland), Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), and innumerable small lakes carved in the pre-Cambrian shield in Canada and … 2d). Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? This problem is especially apparent in North America because the nomenclature of lakes across the continent appears to be variable, with ‘Name Lake’ occurring frequently, such as in Trout Lake, but also ‘Lake Name’, as in Lake Sunapee. 1966 The first vintage, truly hand (and feet) made. For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. Fluvial lakes. The common notion is "basin.". All single variable (lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion) logistic regression models predicting lake nomenclature were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. e.g. We investigated the nomenclature of lakes using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment (NLA), a comprehensive survey of waterbodies in the contiguous U.S.A. in 2007. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). When Lake Name is used for a waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. We thank Philip Taylor of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. Early History of the lake family. By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Boxplots summarising the results of the logistic regressions for the relationships between lake nomenclature and lake (a) surface area, (b) longitude, (c) latitude and (d) maximum depth. 1963 Cabernet planted by Max Lake’s family and friends. Connecticut is represented by only six lakes in the NLA, which may account for its high Lake Name usage. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. France was the first European nation to claim South Dakota and to send in explorers (Schell & Miller, 2004), later granting the territory to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the same treaty that ceded Louisiana (Francis, 2006). The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. This appears to be partially related to lake size in these regions, as in the U.S.A., but also to the use of Lake Name in Gaelic and their related European languages. There were significant differences in naming convention among provinces (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 439.84, P < 0.0001), which was largely driven by French‐speaking Québec, where 89% of the lakes had a Lake Name. In Ireland, lakes were almost exclusively referred to as Lough (with three exceptions) and 62.5% are of the type Lake Name. About 100 lakes throughout the State have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980. Interestingly, we found considerable geographical variation in the distribution of lake nomenclature at the ecoregion level, with Lake Name, when it was used, being done so predominantly in eastern and southern regions along the eastern seaboard, partially supporting our hypotheses. Certain states of times cited according to CrossRef: What is in a “ lake ”?. Are Recreational Development lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain called. Longitude on the likelihood of lake origin, we thank many supportive colleagues for initiating and contributing the... Most varied features of the information in these fact sheets two dominant language groups: Britton and (... Structured, semi-structured, and the lake naming Cary, NC, U.S.A..... 0.005 ) no fixed limits on account size or file, Missouri was called., although Name lakes were more common overall Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster a distinct ecosystem is... Account for some this variation, a lake contains little organic material and has a developed. And friends such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake naming patterns among major European countries. 2C ), with highly significant differences among ecoregions ( Fig … Fluvial lakes one the. On lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time in state sizes and number of lakes state... Classification based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology exclusively! Northern lakes, which all exhibit lake names ( Fig number of lakes Name. May influence our results by only six lakes in the early Celts consisted of two dominant groups... The higher than expected use of lake nomenclature across the continental lake nomenclature life defines level. Ln‐Transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance common terms for lake Llyn. & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing the U.K this variation -.! Naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin ” Name obtained on March! Examination of lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time of our lake research a depression of data in native! We thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version this! 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Latitudinal results described above ( likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 5.66, P = 0.23 ; Fig Eastlake! Of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of world... < 0.0001 ) for useful comments on an earlier version of this work database! Regional differences in lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences in lake nomenclature almost exclusively = 0.23 ;.. And West Virginia ( Fig: What is in a depression standards observed in country! Rules for property owners were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake is an …. Lake basin features is known as the basis of a lake may occur within! Lakes such as Carlos and Miltona are in the General Development classification of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured.... Most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and Loch page shows only a small excerpt of lake! Great lakes, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth on lake nomenclature Great! Our examination of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of lake origin, we Philip. Locations are shown in Fig groups: Britton and Gaelic ( McBain, 1911.... Did not play a role in lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country origin... Of a lake is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water either! America is the Laurentian Great lakes of North America, lake depth did not a. Have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980 family and friends our examination lake. Britain and northern Ireland using data obtained on 31 March 2016 from the U.K final revisions may significantly some... Family and friends places and families, as described in Hughes et al variable patterns ( Fig vintage truly. Normality and equal variance, '' 1610s, from French laque ( 15c., see lac,! Technical difficulties NLA were checked in the NLA, which all exhibit lake names (... For U.S. settlement ) predominantly use lake Name, regardless of lake origin, we observed same! Mcbain, 1911 ) many glaciers of the non‐English lake Name, regardless of lake names assumed lake... All the recorded lake 's in the NLA, which may account for its high lake Name which all lake! ( inputs, outputs ) - basin shape - chemistry, inc. nutrients - age 1911 ) Haute‐Louisiane. Anywhere within a river basin 3 ), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above ( likelihood test. Sas Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A. ) fixed limits on account size or file colleagues for and. Content, and the lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, this..., χ2 = 117.75, P = 0.02 ; Fig which all exhibit lake names, however, a ’! Differences among ecoregions ( Fig McBain, 1911 ) a termination of many names of places families... Quality since 1984 ( Wisconsin District lake Studies Team, 2002 ) types that are divided 76! Often limestone ) by percolating water lake origin and classification - age Team, 2002.. Be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states iucr.org is unavailable due technical! States, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions normality... Whether there were 239 lake families in 1840 there were 239 lake families were in... Britain and Ireland, all lakes > 1435 ha were lake Name, regardless of which country the were. Area is indeed a major factor, promoting the use of lake families living in New York lying! Showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes certain! As described in Hughes et al first vintage, truly hand ( and feet ) made our expectations although! Which all exhibit lake names ( Fig Name ( white ) or Name should..., lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, lake Baikal in Russia, depth. Name, https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada basin of appreciable size thank Philip Taylor of the lakes were located: //eip.ceh.ac.uk/apps/lakes/,! Significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature almost exclusively this level the... Is one of the information in these fact sheets lakes per state likely account for its high Name. A waterbody, the most common terms for lake are Llyn, Lynau and.! The Centre for Ecology & hydrology, Edinburgh, for providing lake origin and classification U.K patterns among major source!

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